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The metabolism as defined from Wikipedia is divided into two categories. Catabolism breaks down organic matter to harvest energy in cellular respiration, and Anabolism uses the energy to create components of cells such as Protein and nucleic acids. These processes require energy from food we eat measured in kilojoules (kJ).

You can’t control your metabolism but you can manipulate it to work for you in progression to your goals.
Your basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy the body needs to maintain itself at rest. The Harris-Benedict equation (Harris-Benedict Principle) is a method used to calculate the daily calorie requirements.
Calculating your BMR:
BMR Calculation for Men:      BMR = 66 + (6.23 x Weight in pounds) + (12.7 x height in inches) – (6.76 age in years)
BMR Calculation for Women: BMR = 655 + (4.35 x weight in pounds) + (4.7 x height in inches) – (4.7 age in years)
In order to find your true BMR you must multiple your activity level by BMR.
Using the Harrison-Benedict equation:
Little to no exercise | Daily calories needed = BMR x 1.2
Light exercise (1–3 days per week) | Daily calories needed = BMR x 1.375
Moderate exercise (3–5 days per week) | Daily calories needed = BMR x 1.55
Heavy exercise (6–7 days per week) | Daily calories needed = BMR x 1.725
Very heavy exercise (twice per day, extra heavy workouts) | Daily calories needed = BMR x 1.9
Thermic effect of food:
When you eat your burn calories with digestion, and metabolize of the food. After each meal the metabolism rises and peaks two to three hours later, increasing the metabolism anywhere between 2-30%. Hot any spicy foods can also have an increased rise in metabolism giving thermic effect.
  • Fat raises 4%
  • Carbohydrates 6%
  • Proteins 30%
Facts that effect metabolism:
  • Body weight (Bone density, lean mass not body fat, calories by weight differ)
  • Body type (Ectomorph, Mesomorph, Endomorph)
  • Age (Adolescents burn more calories then adults due to growth factors)
  • Gender (Women generally have more fat and less muscle then men due to hormonal differences)
  • Physical activity  (As shown in the Harrison-Benedict formula activity increases energy needed to recover. Regular hard working muscle exercise teaches the body to burn calories faster)
  • Amount of lean muscle (Every pound of muscle burns 50 calories shown by the Campbell, W., Crim, M., Young, V. and Evans, W. 1994 study)
  • Amount of body fat (Lean weight (bone mass, connective tissue, muscle) burns more then body fat)
  • Meal frequency (Due to food thermic effect increased meal frequency has a increased effect on the metabolism)
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Dietary deficiencies
  • Hormonal and nervous controls
  • Infection or illness (Increased metabolism from body fighting off the virus)
  • Drugs
  • Environmental temperature (Cold forces your body to raise its core temperature up to 98 degrees)

author: Modasser Abbas